Best of our wild blogs: 28 May 18

Butterfly of the Month - May 2018
Butterflies of Singapore

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Biophilic design key to making Singapore a city in a garden

TAN SHAO YEN Today Online 27 May 18;

Having long been known as the Garden City, Singapore has now set its sights on becoming a City in a Garden.

Used to the abundance of plants and trees well integrated into our parks, roads, waterways and even our buildings, when visiting places overseas, many Singaporeans often find it uncomfortable when they are surrounded by the concrete jungle with little green in sight.

Hence, the concept of biophilic design – which seeks to connect or integrate natural elements and living things such as vegetation, flowing water, and sunlight with the built environment - would certainly resonate with many Singaporeans.

But the benefits of biophilic design go beyond aesthetics and it is useful for us to understand how we can promote its wider adoption here.

American biologist Edward O. Wilson first popularised the term “biophilia” in 1984, referring to the idea that humans have an innate attraction to nature and living things.

Singapore has a long history of imbuing our city with nature.

In recent years, specific greening initiatives such as the Urban Redevelopment Authority’s Landscaping for Urban Spaces and High-Rises (Lush) 2.0 Programme and the National Parks’ Skyrise Greenery scheme have helped to intensify the integration of greenery with our high density developments.

Biophilic elements may be seen in many of the iconic buildings that make up Singapore’s beautiful skyline.

You may already have noticed that the sophisticated roof of Changi Airport’s Terminal 3, with its light reflective panels and skylights, is designed to evoke an image of a rainforest’s canopy.

Or consider Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, in which the building blocks overlook a central garden and the neighbouring pond and park. At upper levels, balconies are decorated with scented plants; and walls are adorned with cascading greens, creating the impression that the whole hospital is enmeshed in nature.

Many other aspects of biophilic elements can also be found in key attractions such as Gardens by the Bay, education institutions such as The Hive @ NTU, and even commercial facilities such as Solaris in One-North.

Biophilic design is not the same as green design, although the two concepts share some similarities.

In general, green design focuses on the sustainability of a building in terms of safe, effective, and efficient use of resources. Architects and engineers ask questions like “Does this feature contribute to reducing energy and water usage?”, “Is this material safe for the environment?”, “Can we incorporate renewable energy sources to this building?”, and “Can we achieve thermal comfort with natural ventilation instead of air-conditioning?”

Biophilic design compliments green design by incorporating natural elements into buildings, and achieves sustainability in different ways.

The ecosystems that biophilic design introduces can help to improve air quality; provide natural forms of temperature control; channel natural lighting; create spaces for the growing of food; and support urban ecology such as migratory birds and wildlife.

Biophilic design is often also green design, but not all green features can be considered biophilic.

There are many benefits to working or living in a building that connects with nature.

Studies have shown that biophilic elements have positive physical and psychological effects on the inhabitants.

For example, patients in hospital rooms that received natural sunlight needed less pain medication than other patients. A connection with nature is also found to positively impact cognitive performance, and improve concentration, attention as well as perception of safety.

Yet there remain some challenges in promoting biophilic design in Singapore.

Some building owners or developers might think that it is purely about aesthetics, and question the cost and necessity of such features.

Others are concerned about the maintainability of the building, since live plants and flowers must be constantly tended to.

Some only want the greenery, but not the creatures they attract.

For architects and designers, the process of biophilic design therefore often involves educating clients and the users.

Beyond this, there is a need to also help Singaporeans understand and embrace the value of biophilic design.

After all, biophilic design and Singapore’s City in a Garden ambitions are inextricably linked.

Architects and urban planners will also have to continue to keep themselves updated about this relatively new field of design.

Google, for example, has been testing the effect that biophilic features - such as natural light, plants, terraces, water features, and even sunshine-simulating full-spectrum light – have on employees in its American offices.

Such studies would certainly contribute to the body of knowledge for biophilic design.

This is an exciting time, and I look forward to seeing how our built environment and city will continue to evolve and become ever “greener” – both metaphorically and physically.


Tan Shao Yen is President of Board of Architects and the CEO of CPG Consultants.

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Malaysia: Protect the environment, Dr M urged

The Star 28 May 18;

PETALING JAYA: A collective of 17 conservation groups and personalities, including celebrity Maya Karin, has written to the Prime Minister, calling for stronger protection of the country’s environment and natural resources.

It includes, among others, World Wide Fund for Nature-Malaysia (WWF-Malaysia), Danau Girang Field Cen­tre, Malaysian Nature Society, Wa­­ter Watch Penang and the Society of Conservation Biology-Malaysia Chap­­ter.

The letter dated May 24 was written in the wake of an online petition initiated by the group, which garnered over 28,000 signatures within 10 days after it was put up on May 13 on

The petition called upon the Prime Minister and the new Paka­tan Harapan Government to maintain and strengthen a dedicated environmental portfolio within the Cabinet.

The group also asked Dr Mahathir to choose a minister with “genuine interest in protecting the environment” to head the portfolio.

In the letter, the group said Malaysians were concerned about the declining state of the country’s natural environment, which included forests, highlands, coral reefs, rivers, mangroves, seagrass, ocean and all wildlife.

“This ecosystem provides valuable servi­ces such as clean water, fresh air, sources of protein, medicine, recreation and many more,” said the group, adding that it was crucial in supporting the people’s livelihood and general well-being.

While Malaysia is considered among the top 17 countries with a rich biodiversity and is well known for its natural beauty, the group said protecting and managing this was a “huge and challenging task”.

“Most developed countries have a dedicated ministry which is responsible for helping their countries achieve international commitments,” it said.

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Malaysia: Hundreds of fish found dead in one of Sandakan's raw water sources

Stephanie Lee The Star 27 May 18;

KOTA KINABALU: Hundreds of dead fish were seen along the Segaliud River in Batu Sapi in Sandakan on Sunday, causing a foul stench to linger in the area.

Segaliud River, like the Kinabatangan River nearby, is a source of water supply to Sandakan and its surrounding areas.

It is believed that effluent discharged by plantation mills in the area polluted the river and caused this.

Villagers there claim that the river water quality has declined seriously which could impact the supply to Sandakan and Batu Sapi.

Batu Sapi MP Datuk Liew Vui Keong was in the area to see the situation for himself after receiving complaints from villagers.

"I could smell the stench from the dead fish along the river when I got there. It appears they have been dead for at least three days," he said in a statement.

He said villagers who live along the river say its waters are heavily polluted with pesticides, fertiliser and from plantations, plus waste effluent from palm oil mills as well as sediment from logging.

Liew said a police report had been lodged by the village head who claimed that there are five mills nearby which were discharging effluent into the river.

He also said that this was a recurring incident, which continued even after some of the owners had previously been fined by the courts.

Liew said he will take the matter up to the Agriculture and Food Industries as well as the Health and Well-being ministries for further action.

"We will also consider taking legal action against the offenders," he said.

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Indonesia: Dugong sellers thwarted in West Sulawesi

The Jakarta Post 27 May 18;

A fisherman named Safaruddin was about to go out to sea on Saturday when he reportedly found the body of a dugong on Garassi beach in Nepo village, Wonomulyo district, Polewali Mandar, West Sulawesi.

According to his account, there were wounds all over the protected animal’s 2.5-meter-long body. He alleged that the dugong was killed by poachers.

“It was already dead when I found it. This is the third time we have found a dugong body around here,” Safaruddin said as reported by on Sunday.

When Polewali Mandar Water Police officers went to the scene to remove the dead creature, some local residents had reportedly stolen it. They had reportedly cut the body into pieces and planned to sell it on Battoa island.

However, the police thwarted their attempt, arrested the culprits and seized the dugong body as evidence.

Dugongs are listed as endangered in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). (vla)

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Thailand: Coral bleaching found off Phuket

The Thaiger The Nation 27 May 18;

The marine ecology division of the Marine Biological Centre has reported on research about coral bleaching in the areas around Phuket.

The first stage of coral bleaching has been found in some areas around Koh Payu (Ao Kung area), Koh Maithon, Koh Aew and Koh Hey. In some areas in the seas where the research was conducted the water temperature has reached 31 degrees Celsius.

The report says that coral has started to bleach since late April this year.

The Marine and Coastal Researcher and Development Institute have issued a warning to closely follow up on the phenomenon.

Some coral in the Koh Aew area is damaged while around Koh Maithon coral is still plentiful. The report says that coral colour saturation of about 5% to 10% has been lost. Most of the coral species affected are Porites Coral.But the report also says that Acropora Coral, Pocillopora Coral and Montipora Coral appear to be in normal condition whilst they’ll be closely watched to see if there’s any change. The researchers believe the cause of the coral colour drop is an increase of water temperatures in the area since April.

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Hong Kong: Massive beach clean-up for sea turtles

AFP Yahoo News 27 May 18;

More than two thousand volunteers hit the beach on an outlying island of Hong Kong for a mass rubbish clean up Sunday as environment campaigners warned plastic is killing sea turtles and other wildlife.

There has been increasing concern over the amount of rubbish in Hong Kong waters which washes up on its numerous beaches. Authorities and environmentalists have pointed the finger at southern mainland China as the source.

Last year, a massive palm oil spillage from a ship collision in mainland Chinese waters clogged Hong Kong beaches.

But there is evidence that Hong Kong is also to blame. In 2016, local media reported that syringes and medical waste washed ashore from clinics in the city.

Sunday's clean-up took place on Shek Pai Wan, near Sham Wan -- known as "Turtle Cove" — on Hong Kong's Lamma Island.

Sham Wan is one of the few regular sea turtle nesting grounds in southern China and is closed to visitors from June to the end of October, but campaigners said no nests have been recorded in the area in the past six years.

"Turtles aren't making it to the beach to lay eggs," said Aquameridian campaigner Sharon Kwok, adding that turtles are dying, ending up tangled in nets, hit by high-speed boats and ships, and most often, because of trash ingestion.

"Turtles are mistaking plastic bags for jellyfish and eating them," said Kwok, explaining they are incapable of throwing them up as they have barbs in their mouths.

Volunteers gathered dozens of bags of trash including drinking straws, forks and spoons, polystyrene, toothbrushes and plastic bags on the sandy beach.

With much of the plastic waste broken into small pieces, participants needed to use sifters to pick them out.

"From a far distance it looks like it is just normal stones and pebbles, but if you look closer, there's actually quite a lot of small plastics, and turtles can easily think that is food," said 14-year-old volunteer Tommy Tsui.

This year seven green turtles have already washed ashore in Hong Kong according to Kwok, but environmentalists believe more have died and their carcasses have sunk.

Campaigners are urging the government to expand the "restricted area" around Sham Wan, extending it beyond the dry-sand beach which is already protected to the rocky shoreline as well as the shallow waters of the bay.

"I hope that they can expand the restricted area further along the sea and the survival rate of turtles will be higher," said 13-year-old volunteer Caitlin Chiu.

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Best of our wild blogs: 27 May 18

Open for registration – Love MacRitchie Walk with NUS Toddycats! on 9 June 2018 (Sat)
Love our MacRitchie Forest

24 Jun (Sun): FREE Pedal Ubin 2018 with the NUS Toddycats
Pesta Ubin 2018

Discover Pulau Ubin with the month-long Pesta Ubin 2018 with lots of free activities!
Otterman speaks

Bird Records Committee Report (May 2017)
Singapore Bird Group

Night Walk At A Secret Place (25 May 2018)
Beetles@SG BLOG

New children's books on Singapore's seagrasses and corals!
wild shores of singapore

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Indonesia: Kerinci resident injured in tiger attack

Jon Afrizal The Jakarta Post 26 May 18;

A Jambi woman, 58, was attacked by a tiger as she was working on her farm on Thursday.

Rusmayati, a resident of Pungut Mudik village, Air Hangat Timur district, Kerinci regency, Jambi, suffered serious wounds on her right shoulder, back and forehead.

She is currently undergoing medical treatment at Mayjend A.Thalib General Hospital (RSU) in Sungai Penuh city, Jambi.

The Jambi Natural Resources Conservation Agency’s (BKSDA) conservation division head Udin Ikhwanuddin said the incident happened when Rusmayati and her husband, Usman, 60, were working on their farm at 2:30 p.m. local time on Thursday.

“The tiger attacked her from behind,” Udin said on Friday.

Helped by Datrizal, a member of the District Military Command (Kodim) 0417/KRC, Usman brought his wife to a health clinic in Sungai Penuh after the attack.

“Currently, Rusmayati is still in intensive care. She underwent surgery at RSU Mayjend A.Thalib at 8 p.m. local time on Thursday,” said Udin.

He added that BKSDA Jambi personnel and a Sumatran tiger patrol team were investigating the incident. (ebf)

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Best of our wild blogs: 26 May 18

2nd June 2018 (Saturday): Herp Walk with the HSS and VSG (Festival of Biodiversity Edition)
Herpetological Society of Singapore

10 Jun (Sun): Chek Jawa and Leave No Trace Discovery with Better Trails
Pesta Ubin 2018

22 Jun (Fri): MAD for Musang! for kids with Cicada Tree Eco-Place
Pesta Ubin 2018

The Long-tailed Macaque Working Group is recruiting: human surveyors and monkey guards!
Otterman speaks

Living reefs of Terumbu Semakau
Offshore Singapore

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What Could Happen If Malaysia Builds Three More Islands

Wade Shepard Forbes 25 May 18;

Fisherman Haji Rossli looked out across the bay, but could hardly fathom what could soon be built there. "Surprised? No, we were shocked," he told me when I asked what his reaction was when he first learned of the plan that calls for his remote fishing village to be transformed into Malaysia's next outpost of progress. Three manmade islands are set to be constructed where there is only sea today, upon which a new smart city, industrial zone, and transportation hub will be built.

The Penang South Reclamation (PSR) Project

It is called the Penang South Reclamation (PSR) project, and is, in and of itself, nothing unusual in the context of 21st century Asia--a region that is urbanizing so rapidly that the creation of another new city, another new dot on the map, hardly makes its way into the international news stream. Perhaps just as typical is the fact that this new city is set to be constructed on land reclaimed from the sea, a development strategy that has taken on bonanza-like proportions across the region in recent years.

The PSR is one of the more ambitious land reclamation projects for urban development in the world today. An estimated 189 million cubic meters of sand and rock are set to be hauled in from the Malaysian state of Perak to make artificial islands measuring 9.3, 4.45, and 3.23 square kilometers, respectively. These new islands are designed to flow within the natural contours of the coastline, neatly filling in three bays and extending the reach of Penang farther out to sea.

However, unlike other reclamation projects in Penang—which have seen new coastal extensions and artificial islands created for luxury high-rises and shopping malls—the Penang South Reclamation project is slated to be a fundraiser for the Penang state government’s ambitious new transportation masterplan. Essentially, the government plans to take out a bridge loan to pay for their long-awaited project on the contingency that they will be able to repay it via selling the new land to developers.

The Reclamation Bonanza

Traditional fishing village beneath the new luxury high-rises of the STP 1 project in the north of Penang.

“The majority of the people live nearby the water and most cities are located nearby water—water is life and always has been the center of economic activities,” summed up Kees-Jan Bandt, the CEO of Bandt Management & Consultancy, who has in-depth experience with reclamation projects around the world.

New cities built on reclaimed land have become one of the hottest trends in urbanization, providing what amounts to a developmental magic act: government officials can virtually point their fingers out to sea, say "voila," and a blank slate of prime positioned, high-value real estate almost instantly appears. Over the past decade, countries throughout Asia have been reclaiming land en masse:

Cities on China’s coast reclaimed an average of 700 square kilometres of land–that’s about the size of Singapore–from the sea every year from 2006 to 2010 for new houses, industrial zones and ports. The 130 sq km of land that was reclaimed to build the new city of Nanhui was significant enough to reconfigure China’s national map, and the reclaimed land for the Caofeidian economic zone was twice the size of Los Angeles.

Malaysia has massive reclamation works under way for the 700,000-person Forest City in Johor; the Philippines is reclaiming 1,010 acres from the sea for its New Manila Bay – City of Pearl; Cambodia is building a slew of Chinese-financed properties on reclaimed land; Dubai has turned reclamation into an art form; and Sri Lanka is building a new financial district on the dredged and deposited land of Colombo International Financial City. Around a quarter of modern-day Singapore was open sea when the nation state came into existence in 1955.

This new construction land becomes a wild card for governments and developers — they get blank slates of land to develop without the hassles and expenses inherent to relocating people, settling with existing land owners, and redeveloping an already established area.

Big profits

This is where one of the new islands for the Penang South Reclamation (PSR) will be constructed.

The economic incentives for reclaiming land are clear: according to Ocean University of China professor Liu Hongbin, the immediate profit from selling reclaimed land in China can fetch a profit in the ballpark of 10- to 100-times the cost of producing it.

The environmental impact

While there are economic benefits to developing this underutilized stretch of Penang, the local fishermen are worried about the impact on the local maritime ecosystem and, by extension, fear for their livelihoods.

“In this area there is a lot of plankton, a lot of fish and prawn come here,” Rossli explained as he pointed out to the bay. “What will happen to them when they build this project? Maybe they will go to other places.”

His fears are not unfounded, as there are already examples around Penang of what his fishing grounds could soon become. Massive reclamation projects have been happening here since 1975, as the island rapidly grows not only economically but physically as well. In the east, a massive reclamation project saw a new highway and commercial and residential strip appear. In the north, the controversial Seri Tanjung Pinang (STP) project has moved into its second phase, decimating the local fisheries and debilitating the nearby villages which depend on them.

“Before, there were many fish. Now, nothing,” fisherman Mohd-Ishak Bin Abdul Rahman told me previously about the plight of Tanjung Tokong, his village which now sits in the shadows of the mostly vacant luxury condos that were built on reclaimed land at STP 1.

“In terms of impacts to the local community, it has affected the local fishermen the most,” explained Mageswari Sangaralingam, a Penang-based research officer for Friends of the Earth Malaysia. “The reclamation projects have resulted in loss of fishing ground and project activities will adversely impact marine life, the fisheries sector, and thus the livelihood of the fisher community.”

She added that the numerous reclamation projects around the periphery of Penang has changed the island’s coastal hydrology and geomorphology.

“[The environment] will change, it will change,” Rossli lamented. “They will take material from another country and dump it to make an island… So it's not suitable for the fish.”

If Penang’s STP project in the north is a model to go off of, Rossli's fears are warranted. The local crab population there was decimated by mud that the fishermen believe came from the reclamation site.

“The fishermen don't like our project because they say our project is a threat,” Rosmady Mat Abu, who works for the consortium looking to develop the PSR project, told me when I met him on site. “But we do a survey [and found that] the fish is not around this area, only 30%.”

However, for Haji Rossli and many of the other fishermen of Permatang Damar Laut, losing a full third of their fishing grounds to the new islands is significant.

“If the place is still like it is right now everyday we can go and fish there and get some money,” Rossli explained. “If they make an island there it will be difficult for the fishermen, and in the market the price of fish may rise up higher and higher. How am I going to support my family?”

“As fishermen point out, not only the fishes are becoming extinct, even fishermen will soon be extinct as they lose fishing grounds,” Sangaralingam added.

These environmental concerns are real -- so much so that earlier this year Beijing put an end to all reclamation projects not backed by the central government.


Land reclamation in Penang—as well as in other parts of Malaysia—has become a politically contentious strategy for development. With Mahathir bin Mohamad back in power as the country's new prime minister, his administration's intentions for the PSR project still remain to be seen. Although it has not gone unnoticed that Mahathir's ten main government ministries conspicuously lacks one charged with protecting Malaysia's environment.

Wade Shepard is the author of Ghost Cities of China. Traveling since '99. Currently on the New Silk Road. Read my other articles on Forbes here.

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Malaysia: Logging made water polluted, say villagers

joash ee de silva The Star 26 May 18;

KUANTAN: It has been a challenging week for the villagers of Kuala Kenau and the surrounding areas in Sungai Lembing near here.

About 100 of them have seen their water source polluted, turning brown and muddy.

Mohd Nawi Mat Arif, 48, who has lived in the village since he was born, said the dirty water had caused them much difficulty.

“Sometimes we have no choice but to use the brown water to wash clothes. If the shirt is white, it will turn brown,” said Nawi.

Wan Suhaili Wan Kamaruzaman, 34, said she had to send her youngest child to the clinic for itchiness after bathing with the water.

“The doctor gave him antibiotics and an ointment. He is getting better,” said Wan Suhaili.

“Some of us have a treated water supply but it is expensive and it is not switched on 24/7, so we still use water from the catchment area.”

The villagers are blaming logging activities around the water catchment area at Bukit Segantang as the source of the pollution.

Wan Mohd Rasidi Wan Mohd Alih, 51, said the water catchment area had supplied water to their houses for decades.

“When a company started logging near the water catchment area last week, our water turned into teh tarik,” Rasidi said.

“When there is heavy rain, the water would turn muddy and villagers would have to walk 40 minutes up the hill to get clean water,” he told reporters yesterday.

After the villagers took reporters to the logging site and the water catchment area, Sintanmas Timber director Datuk M.K. Tan came to the village to meet the press.

He claimed the firm did not fell trees around the water catchment area, adding it had the necessary permits, including the Environ­mental Impact Report for logging.

“We didn’t log trees near the water catchment area and stopped once we came near it,” said Tan.

“It is hard to say who is at fault with regards to the pollution, but for now we will stop logging to investigate the matter.”

Sungai Lembing state assemblyman Datuk Md Sohaimi Mohamed Shah, when contacted, said he was surprised to hear of the case, explaining that he had reminded the Forestry Department since 2014 not to allow logging activities near water catchment areas.

“These places are very important for the villagers.

“I will try make a visit to Kampung Kuala Kenau and maybe bring Fores­­­try Department officials toge­ther to solve this issue,” he said.

100 Sungai Lembing residents suffering after water source is contaminated

KUANTAN: More than 100 residents of Kampung Kuala Kenau in Sungai Lembing have been forced to use murky water for their everyday chores, including meal preparation, for the past week.

They claim the source of the water had been contaminated due to logging activities nearby.

The residents said many of the houses in the village were not supplied treated water by Pengurusan Air Pahang Bhd (PAIP) and had to rely on the Bukit Segantang water catchment area located about 2km away.

Resident Wan Mohamad Rasidi Wan Mohd Alih, 51, claimed the problem began on May 20, adding that logging activities were at its height then.

He said the water catchment area had been the main source of water ever since the village began a century ago, but the water there was now murky with sediment from the logging activities, sand and leaves from the felled trees.

"The water coming out of the pipes is not just murky... it also contains sand. It's the colour of tea and it gets worse whenever it rains. We have never had this problem before," he said.

Another resident, 43-year-old Wan Khairuddin Wan Noda, claimed the situation had, in a short space of time, caused skin problems, including itchiness, among some residents, especially those who use it to bathe.

“Even though they know that using contaminated water would bring problems, they have no other choice as not all of them can afford to pay for piped water.”

Housewife Wan Suhaili Wan Kamaruzzaman, 34, said it was difficult for her to prepare food for the family for sahur and buka puasa meals.

“I have to collect the water and let the sediment settle first before using it. Even though I am wary of using the water, I have no other choice as this is the only water we have.”

Checks by the New Straits Times Press showed that there were indeed logging activities some 500m from the water catchment area. The water seemed to be a murky, yellowish brown colour.

It is understood that the logging activities, carried out by Sintanmas Timber Sdn Bhd and covering some 24.96ha, is legal. It began on March 23 and will go on till June 22.

Sintanmas Timber director Datuk M.K. Tan, when contacted, denied that the logging had caused any contamination of the water.

“We have followed all the regulations. But, we will investigate the claims anyway,” he said.

Dept: Logging activities did not contaminate catchment pond
The Star 27 May 18;

KUANTAN: The Pahang Forestry Department has denied allegations that logging activities caused the contamination of the water catchment pond at Bukit Segan­tang in Sungai Lembing here.

Its director Datuk Dr Mohd Hizamri Mohd Yasin said logging was not being carried out near the pond, which was reportedly a source of water supply for about 100 residents in Kampung Kuala Kenau here.

He said the department had issued a logging licence in the area involving 25ha of state government land of non-virgin jungle status, divided into two blocks.

“Work is at 15% and involves only Block A.

The department, said Dr Mohd Hizamri, had also carried out a field inspection at 5pm on Friday.

“We found that the catchment pond is still clear, not murky at all and still being used by some villa­gers,” he said.

Dr Mohd Hizamri was respon­ding to claims by Kampung Kuala Kenau residents that the 100-year-old water catchment pond had been polluted since May 20, following logging activities.

He said he had held consultations with representatives of the residents near the forest to get their views on March 14.

Besides those from Kampung Kuala Kenau, the session was also attended by representatives from Kampung Sungai Mas, Kampung Melayu Sungai Lembing, Kampung Jeram Takar and Kampung Orang Asli Sungai Mas, he said.

“During the session, there were no objections against the logging activities and the representatives also signed a letter agreeing to these,” Dr Mohd Hizamri said. — Bernama

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